Recital 97Data protection officer
1Where the processing is carried out by a public authority, except for courts or independent judicial authorities when acting in their judicial capacity, where, in the private sector, processing is carried out by a controller whose core activities consist of processing operations that require regular and systematic monitoring of the data subjects on a large scale, or where the core activities of the controller or the processor consist of processing on a large scale of special categories of personal data and data relating to criminal convictions and offences, a person with expert knowledge of data protection law and practices should assist the controller or processor to monitor internal compliance with this Regulation. 2In the private sector, the core activities of a controller relate to its primary activities and do not relate to the processing of personal data as ancillary activities. 3The necessary level of expert knowledge should be determined in particular according to the data processing operations carried out and the protection required for the personal data processed by the controller or the processor. 4Such data protection officers, whether or not they are an employee of the controller, should be in a position to perform their duties and tasks in an independent manner.